Tuesday, May 26, 2009

"Theological Interpretation of Scripture"

Last week I posted concerning the emerging evangelical conversation about the Bible. In a conversation on another venue, an esteemed friend mentioned an influential movement with which I have only entry-level familiarity. It goes under the label, "Theological Interpretation of Scripture." This conversation has succeeded in doing some of the things I'm hoping to do in reaching out to evangelicals on this blog. ("Come on in. The water's fine.") That is, it's brought mainline and evangelical interpreters into constructive conversation with one another.

The "Theological Interpretation" movement isn't monolithic; on the other hand, as an outsider I do identify key figures, standard works, and perhaps some common commitments. (See Christopher Spinks' essay, which offers beginning bibliography.) At the same time, I'm not convinced the movement has fully faced the complications implied in the questions it is asking. Consider two standard formulations for "theological interpretation."
  • Kevin J. Vanhoozer: "The theological interpretation of the Bible is characterized by a governing interest in God, the word and works of God, and by a governing intention to engage in what we might call 'theological criticism.'" ("Introduction," Dictionary for Theological Interpretation of the Bible [ed. Vanhoozer, et al., 22)
  • The Scripture Project enumerates nine theses on interpretation, which include, "Scripture truthfully tells the story of God's action of creating, judging, and saving the world," and "The four canonical Gospels narrate the truth about Jesus." (Ellen F. Davis, and Richard B. Hays, eds., The Art of Reading Scripture, 1, 3)
I can fully embrace that first quote. It concerns what kind of activity theological interpretation presupposes. In my view, theological interpretation of the Bible happens when people of faith engage scripture in the praxis of living the life of faith and in the context of the broader historical and global church.

The second quotes, those two theses, I cannot embrace. They concern the kinds of conclusions theological interpretation may advocate. I'm sure there's a philosophical sense in which one could make those two theses seem meaningful, but let's be real. On an ordinary reading, those theses rule out the possibility that the Bible itself might present problems to us. Sometimes the God of the Bible saves through genocide, and Luke himself tells us he was trying to improve on earlier Jesus stories -- like, say, Mark (Luke 1:1-4). I cannot discern how these theses help us sort through God's command to slaughter the Amalekites and their cattle or how to respond to the diverse testimony of the four Gospels.

I mentioned engaging this conversation in another venue. In response to Sparks' essay, referenced above, I wrote, "Whatever generalizations we make regarding the Bible as scripture must stand up to reading the Bible as a whole and in its particulars, I think." Those particulars included things like genocide as a model of divine deliverance and the legitimation of slavery.

One colleague, to whose work I refer frequently, suggested that perhaps I was stuck in the archaic pattern that moves too quickly from "interpretation" to "application." According to him, "theological interpretation" has moved beyond that pattern. Another participant mentioned the essay on slavery in the Dictionary of Theological Interpretation of the Bible. There William J. Webb finds a "redemptive movement" in biblical discussions of slavery. Apparently, the biblical texts are relatively progressive in their own contexts. The biblical witnesses were not "redemptive in any absolute sense" but rather set a "clear direction" that would have served the church well in its later slavery debates.

This is inadequate. On a spectrum of ancient opinion, yes, the Bible comes off well to the progressive end on slavery. Others, including some pagans and some second century Christians, held even more egalitarian views. But that's beside the point. A good healthy dose of historical analysis shows that the Bible itself speaks with diverse voices on the question. Paul may well have opposed slavery with all the power available to him (I don't have space here to spell out that argument), but people writing in Paul's name aggressively tamed Paul's liberatory push. Thus, Ephesians, Colossians, and 1 Timothy put slaves back in their (relatively less abusive) places. How, I ask, does Webb's discussion, which ignores the standard issue of authorship and diversity within Scripture, help us negotiate such diversity?

I believe I have offered a different model for theological engagement of the slavery question, one that does not "jump" from interpretation to application, in Sinners. There I engage 1 Peter, which exhorts slaves to endure abuse. Historical and rhetorical analysis come into play here, as I argue that the structure of 1 Peter surrounds socially conservative social teachings with concern regarding persecution. I do not draw a conclusion on the matter, but I suggest that 1 Peter raises significant questions for contemporary disciples. In a context marked by alienation and persecution, I suggest, 1 Peter offers its audience two ways of relating to the world. On the one hand, they are a holy nation, a royal priesthood, called to distinctive discipleship in a hostile world. On the other hand, they are to avoid persecution by living within standard social norms. All Christian communities face this challenge of balancing distinctiveness with cultural "respectability." This is merely a suggestion, but it models what I believe theological interpretation should be about, bringing the life of faith into conversation with scripture (141-44). That can be a messy process.

Joel B. Green's recent book Seized by Truth: Reading the Bible as Scripture, suggests that terms like "infallibility" and "inerrancy" have not served the church [originally, "evangelicals"] well. They reduce scripture to propositions, but they do not guarantee the kinds of interpretations that represent faithful engagement (146-48). Proper reading of scripture, Green argues, takes form in lives shaped by the Bible rather than in rigidly "correct" conclusions regarding it (see also his argument from Luke and Acts, pp. 42-50). But like McKnight and Dunn, Green entirely avoids the Bible's "problem" dimensions. Thus, I'm not convinced that what he says about the Bible in general will bear the weight of the Bible's particulars.

This is why I'm reaching out to my evangelical sisters and brothers. Let's not generalize about the Bible and its subject matter, thus boxing us in to those dimensions of scripture that fit the model. Instead, let's commit to read the Bible with curiosity, passion, and faith -- the whole Bible -- trusting the Spirit and the community of faith to guide us through.

21 comments:

Joel Green said...

Thanks for yours, Greg. A few immediate responses, mostly by way of clearing the ground...

First, in my posting on FB, I identified a possible problem in terms of a "linear hermeneutic" that moves from "interpretation" to "application" of one text after the other. In this formulation, my emphasis falls on "one text after the other" -- since theological interpretation is concerned finally with texts within the context of the whole canon.

Second, I think that if you look closely at _Seized by Truth_, you will see that I do not say that terms such as inerrancy and infallibility have not served evangelicals well (per your characterization). I say, rather, that they have not served the church well. This is a key issue for me, since theological interpretation, whatever else it is, is ecclesially located.

Third, I am unsure on what basis you want to compare the respective works of Jimmy Dunn and Scot McKnight with my own. Their approaches have been and continue to be of a quite different sort, not least on hermeneutical grounds. If your primary concern is that, in these three books, these three authors have not addressed "hard texts" (or "problem texts"), then your point would be well taken -- but even then only if each of us had not engaged elsewhere in the sort of work with particulars about which you seem most concerned. But maybe I am not hearing your point well...

Greg Carey said...

Joel, I'm honored by your response. I suppose I'll reply in a "linear" fashion. One thing I tell my students. If someone finds your point unclear, it's probably because you (I in this case) didn't make it clear.

As to theological interpretation embracing the whole canon, I absolutely concur. I do find diversity within the canon to be a powerful resource to faith, and I know you agree. I also experience it as a challenge, and your work suggests you agree. But perhaps I take it in different directions by (occasionally) emphasizing conflict within the canon.

As to "serving the church" well versus "serving evangelicals" well, I just stand corrected. I get where you're coming from, and I appreciate the catholic and ecumenical sentiment. I could add a couple of qualifications, but I think you've made the major point.

Why compare your work with McKnight and Dunn? I find several points of comparison, even if I'm sure I've obscured the diversity. If I were in your place, I suspect I'd object, too. May I spell out the points of convergence?

All three of you work in evangelical contexts (even Dunn, according to his book), but speak to broader audiences.

All three discuss theological reading that transcends boiling down scripture to doctrinal tidbits, roadmaps for life, and so forth.

All three emphasize the narrative dimension of the whole story, including the appropriate response of participating in the grand story and being shaped by it.

All three emphasize that what God may have said "back then" (more Scot's language) isn't necessarily the same as God's word for now.

All three brush against the "i-words" and suggest they aren't adequate, but don't fundamentally refute them.

So, finally, in major works on reading the Bible in the life of the church, I think it's important to engage things that don't "fit," the "blue parakeets" that really get on our nerves. I think this is the major issue that keeps folks at, say, Lancaster from finding stronger partnerships with folks at, say, Fuller.

Here I'm a pragmatist (in the tradition of Peirce, James, and Rorty). The live case today is sexuality in the life of the church. Some key people in the "theological interpretation" camp have publicly condemned "other" sexualities on biblical grounds. Here I think it's essential to talk about how we use the Bible. And one key point (my opinion, much open to dispute) is that finding a biblically formed approach to this issue might require our willingness to critique biblical constructions of sexuality in the context of larger scriptural patterns. Examples could be multiplied, as in how to read scripture in the context of imperialism.

If we're not willing to say things like that out loud and in our major hermeneutical publications, I'm not sure how some important conversations can move forward.

Joel Green said...

I appreciate your follow-up, Greg. Some points to clarify further.

First, I was surprised to read that I had not fundamentally refuted the "i"-words. You are right, of course; I have not refuted them. The truth is, I never considered the need to refute them. These words are neither part of my vocabulary nor part of my tradition, and my only concern in the relevant section of _Seized by Truth_ was actually to point out that we Wesleyans have other ways of talking about what the Bible "is" and how the Bible functions authoritatively....

Since I as a Wesleyan am often defined out of being an "evangelical," I don't always self-identify in the way you have me cataloged. This is not because I reject the nomenclature of "evangelical" -- a word I am happy to embrace, depending, of course, on who does the defining... -- but because, so often in the US, "evangelical" is parsed in terms of the Reformed Tradition (and, these days, in terms of a particular reading of the Reformed Tradition).

Second, I am not sure that you and I are using the language of "theological interpretation" in the same way. I am unsure, e.g., that folks in the theological interpretation discussion could readily be classified with regard to their views on human sexuality. That is, there is no easy line drawn between "evangelicalism" and "theological interpretation" -- in fact, a good number of evangelical biblical scholars are stand-off-ish regarding "theological interpretation" because they see it as insufficiently concerned with "history."

Third, I am happy, with you, to speak of conflict within the canon. I think generally that folks interested in "biblical theology" or "NT theology" too easily move toward unity in the midst of diversity. This is because, generally, issues of unity and diversity are discussed in terms of "ideas" that, then, must be harmonized (or not). My own sense is that this issue can be addressed best by a narrative approach to the canonical witness -- given narrative's capacity to handle a variety of genres and given narrative's capacity to hold side by side apparently contradictory claims. (Example of the first capacity: Acts, a narrative that plays the host to a variety of forms, including letters and speeches, and voyage account, etc. Example of the second capacity: Who is responsible for "handing Jesus over"? Jesus? God? Judas? Pilate? Etc.) Like a symphony, narrative allows for melody and counter-melody, so to speak.

There is more to be said, but I fear I am testing your patience already with this long-ish comment...

Nate said...

So what is a layperson (like myself), meant to take from this discussion? Is the Bible not true in presenting God? If it isn't what is the point. I have been struggling through this point lately. I understand as evangelicals we should hold the Bible up as a scared cow. However, if the Bible isn't worth while then our religion seems worthless.
thanks
Nate

Anonymous said...

I meant to say "not hold it up as a scared cow"
Nate

Greg Carey said...

Hi, Joel and Nate. I'm honored by the depth of your responses.

To share just a little, I like Joel am happy to stand among evangelicals, depending on context. My current vocational context is ecumenical, and my energy for this conversation comes from that.

So in asking Joel about "refuting" the "i-words," I'm proposing that we live in a biblicist culture. Even non-religious people assume a biblicist approach to scripture -- that Christians are obliged to "do what the Bible says." I'm proposing that my vocation requires naming that we do not understand the Bible that way.

(Just to be clear, I didn't mean to put all theological interpretation people in the same box on any particular issue.)

Thankfully, Joel is among those who name how we do find ourselves formed by the Bible.

Nate, I suspect that you already know the truth of the Bible. That is, you have encountered the power of scripture in your life and in the life of faith communities. I don't think the truth of scripture means that (a) its teachings are uniform or (b) its teachings can be directly applied to our present context.

I do believe that when Christian people open themselves to the Bible, when we do it together and in the light of others from across time and around the world, when we open ourselves to the lives of those beyond the church as well as those within, the Holy Spirit has a habit of bringing new life through that encounter. That fundamental conviction and experience justifies how I spend most of my time. I hope that's helpful.

Luke said...

"like "infallibility" and "inerrancy" have not served the church" -Greg

nice to hear this, i break out in hives when i hear these words. however, Greg, you know that the original manuscripts which no one has ever seen, were inerrant. ;-)

i really enjoy reading James F. McGrath's blog (http://exploringourmatrix.blogspot.com/) which he frequently talks about how these two adjectives have not been helpful, infact, the opposite. i see you have him on your blogroll, so i'll shut up now. thanks for posting this thoughtful and articulate response. now i'll steal it and act like it's my own!

Chris Spinks said...

Greg, thanks for this post. I've written a reply to it and a post from another blogger on my own blog. You can find it at http://dcspinks.wordpress.com/2009/05/27/response-to-replies-to-catalyst-article/. I look forward to continued discussion.

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